Cool the burnt area using cool running water from a tap or shower for up to 20 minutes.( Do not place the affected area in shower for more than 20 minutes, as this can cause hypothermia). You can also smother flames with a blanket. In the absence of water any cool clean fluid (beer, soft drink, etc.) can be used. If your clothing catches fire,do not run: the rule is STOP, DROP and ROLL on the ground to smother the flames.
Remove jewellery, watches, rings and clothing near the burnt area of skin because of the risk of swelling, if it is a baby, first remove the nappies. If anything is stuck to the burnt skin,don’t try to remove it, as this could cause more damage.
You may also use a first aid burn gel instead of water, provided there is enough to cover the burn.
Apply a sterile dressing. A clean clear plastic bag can be used for burns on your hand.
Seek medical assistance for large-area burns, or if the patient is feeling unwell, or if large blisters are associated with the burn.
How to identify a snake bite
- Generally two puncture wounds
- Bites cause instant swelling and redness around the wounds
- pain at the bite site
- May have difficulty in breathing
- Symptoms like vomiting and nausea
- blurred vision
- There may be symptoms like sweating and salivating
- Face and limbs will be numb
Things to Do:
- Stay calm and move beyond the snake’s striking distance.
- Do not panic. If not it will enhance heart rate and would circulate the venom faster in the body.
- Remove jewellery, ring and tight clothing before it starts swelling.
- Immobilize the limb but do NOT restrict blood flow unless you are certain the bite was from a snake that delivers neuro toxic venom.
- Be ready to administer CPR if necessary.
- Get the victim to a hospital as soon as possible.
- Do not hurt or kill the snake. Take a picture if you can but don’t waste time hunting it down.
- Don’t use a tourniquet.
- Don’t allow the victim to walk. Carry or transport them by vehicle.
- Don’t apply ice to the wound.
- Don’t attempt to suck the venom out by mouth.
- Don’t burn the wound, as it would not have any effect on the venom, which has already entered the bloodstream.
- Avoid caffeine or alcohol, this could speed the rate at which your body absorbs venom.
- Don’t soak the affected limb in any solutions.
Treating Bites and Stings:
How to identify Bites and Stings
- red bumps
- mild swelling
- Stinging pain
- difficulty swallowing or speaking
- dizziness or fainting
- chest tightness, wheezing, or difficulty breathing
- Wash the affected area with soap and water.
- Apply ice pack to the area to relieve pain and swelling.
- Keep checking the casualty’s breathing, pulse and level of response.
- Apply calamine lotion to the area several times a day to help relieve itching and pain. You can also use a paste of baking soda and water .
- If the victim starts to vomit, turn them onto their side to allow the vomit to drain and prevent choking.
- Avoid giving them anything to eat or drink.
- Don’t apply a tourniquet.
- In the case of ticks, don’t try to kill the tick before removal as this may cause it to inject more poison.
- Get them to sit down (not lie down) and lean forward slightly. Don’t have the person tilt the head backward.
- Make sure the blood drains out through their nose, make them lean forward.
- Ask them to breathe through their mouth and pinch their nose, taking a brief pause every ten minutes, until the bleeding stops.
- Encourage them not to bend down for several hours after the bleeding episode. Better to avoid speaking, swallowing, coughing, spiting or sniffing because this may break blood clots that may have started to form in the nose.
- If the bleeding is severe, or if it lasts more than 30 minutes,for medical help.
Treating glue in your eye:
- Just relax. Don’t panic
- It is easy to flush out water-based glues with water. But superglues need special medical attention.
- Soak a cotton cloth in warm water, apply this to the eyelid where the super glue is located and gently bathe this. Apply a patch to the eye, as it will take a few days for the super to wear off.The eye will open without further action within 1-4 days.
- If the super glue is in the eye, allow your tears to flow freely to help dislodge this. You can use a warm water to rinse it out the eye if needed.
- Periods of double vision and weeping may be experienced until clearance is achieved.
- Use of water to wash eyes repeatedly may assist in aiding more rapid removal of the adhesive.
- Consult an eye specialist, as the eye is delicate and getting super glue in the eye can be serious and causes lasting damage.
- Clean the affected area with antiseptic soap and water.
- With a sticky tape gently pull away the splinter.
- Use Sterilized tweezers to remove the object. A magnifying glass may help you see better.
- After removing clean the affected area again. Cover it with a bandage and antibiotic ointment.
- Seek medical advice if the splinter seems to be too deep or won’t come out.
Treating baby who is chocking:
Choking is when when a baby can not breathe because food, a toy, or other object is blocking the throat or windpipe (airway).If a child is unable to cry or cough and you’ll need to help her get it out.The bay may make odd noises or no sound at all while opening its mouth. The skin may turn bright red or blue.
- Coughing is the most effective way to dislodge a blockage.
- Turn the infant face-up. Use your thigh or lap for support. Support the head.
- Place 2 fingers on the middle of his breastbone just below the nipples.
- Give up to 5 quick blows, compressing the chest 1/3 to 1/2 the depth of the chest.
- Continue 5 back blows followed by 5 chest thrusts until the object is dislodged or the infant loses alertness (becomes unconscious).
If the child becomes unresponsive, stops breathing, or turns blue:
- Shout for help.
- Call for an emergency.
- Avoid doing back blows and chest thrusts if the infant stops breathing for other reasons, such as asthma, infection, swelling, or a blow to the head. Do give infant CPR in these cases.
- Do NOT try to grasp and pull out the object if the infant is alert (conscious).
- Always call your doctor after a child has been choking, even if you successfully remove the object from the airway and the infant seems fine.
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